By Hakan Ilaslan, Murali Sundaram
This finished atlas is exclusive in being dedicated to the MRI appearances of bone marrow within the axial and appendicular skeleton of adults and youngsters. basic MRI findings, together with universal versions and degenerative adjustments, are first documented. MRI appearances within the whole spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic infiltrative marrow problems are then awarded, with accompanying explanatory textual content. one of the stipulations thought of are a number of myeloma, the extreme and protracted leukemias, diffuse metastases, diffuse lymphomas, the anemias, polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis, garage issues, and infections. attribute adjustments to bone marrow following quite a few types of remedy also are displayed and mentioned. the chosen photos mirror using quite a few sequences and methods, equivalent to fats suppression, and contrast-enhanced imaging.
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Additional info for Pediatric and Adult MRI Atlas of Bone Marrow: Normal Appearances, Variants and Diffuse Disease States
Sagittal T1-weighted image of the skull demonstrates patchy red marrow throughout the skull, especially about the parieto-occipital region (arrows) 44 The vertebra has predominantly hematopoietic marrow in the first decade except for the area around the basivertebral vein (Fig. 51). With few exceptions, the vertebra never fully converts to fatty marrow, but with age the amount of red marrow decreases, and fatty marrow increases resulting in increased T1 signal intensity compared to the adjacent intervertebral disc.
29). Some of the proximal humeral bone marrow changes could be due to dissecting reactive cysts from rotator cuff insertion of greater or lesser tuberosities (Fig. 30). c Fig. 23 A 48-year-old woman. 4 MRI of the Normal Appendicular Skeleton 25 a b d e Fig. 24 Coronal T1-weighted images through right hip in five different adult individuals showing different patterns of red marrow within proximal femur, some of which simulate a lesion in subtrochanteric area. Fatty signal in subtrochanteric femur is outlined by red marrow in c intertrochanteric region (a).
On T2-weighted and inversion recovery images, there is no internal standard with which marrow signal intensity can be compared; therefore, it is unreliable and inadvisable to assess the bone marrow status and composition solely on the basis of inversion recovery and T2-weighted images. Trabecular bone or mineral matrix provides a supporting framework for the red and yellow marrow elements. On MRI both cortical and trabecular bone produce little or no signal a b Normal Bone Marrow: In Utero Through the Adult Years due to the lack of mobile protons; hence, “signal void” is outlined by signal in the adjacent tissues.
Pediatric and Adult MRI Atlas of Bone Marrow: Normal Appearances, Variants and Diffuse Disease States by Hakan Ilaslan, Murali Sundaram