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The relaxation is also observable through changes in the phase of the high-frequency temperature oscillations in the sample. Modulation calorimetry usually employs the so-called adiabatic regime. This means that the oscillations of the heat losses from the sample are much smaller than the oscillations of the heating power. In this regime, the phase shift between the oscillations of the heating power and the temperature oscillations in the sample is close to 90'. Due to the relaxation, this phase shift decreases.

2) are presented. 1 Theoretical values of vacancy formation enthalpies HF (ev): 1 - Kornblit (1981, 1982), 2 - Kostromin et al. (1983), 3 - Harder and Bacon (1986), 4 - Ackland et al. (1987), 5 - Krause et al. (1989), 6 - Rosato et al. (1989), 7 - Ghorai (1991), 8 - Korhonen et al. (1995). 27 26 2. 2 Theoretical values of vacancy formation volume VF, in units of atomic volume R: 1 - estimates by Seeger (1973b) based on activation volumes of self-diffusion, 2 - Jacucci and Taylor (1979), 3 - Bauer et al.

The vacancy equilibration is thus observable even at intermediate temperatures, where the extra resistivity is small but the relaxation time is sufficiently long. (2) The sample is rapidly heated up to a higher temperature (or cooled down to a lower temperature), and the vacancy equilibration is monitored through measurements of a proper physical property of the sample. This approach has important advantage that both initial and final states of the sample are well 3. Methods for studying point defects 39 defined.

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A Note on the Principle of Detailed Balancing by Fowler R.H., Milne E.A.

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