By Samuel Hugh McGrady
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Extra info for A note-book of European history, 1400-1920
Meanwhile there had come about a gradual alteration from the industrial methods of the Middle Ages - the finished article was now produced, not by one man, but by a series of men, each a specialist. " In the Middle Ages," says Acton, " the Church, that is to say, first the cloister, then the universities founded under the protectorate of the Church, had the civilizing of society, and, apart from law, the monopoly of literature. That came to an end when the clergy lost the superiority of 24 AGE OF THE RENAISSANCE knowledge, and had to share their influence with profane laymen .
Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine (died 1574). I. LOUIS, Cardinal of Guise (assassinated I Charles, Mary, Queen of Scots. Duke of Mayenne. 1588). (2) THE CIVIL WARS (1562-1598) (I) THE FIRST THREE WARS (1562-1570) are really one war, interrupted by so-called peaces. After the devastating third war an attempt at compromise was made. The marriage of Henry of Navarre with Margaret of Valois was a step to a reconciliation between the Court and the Protestant Party (1572). The successes of the Sea-Beggars made Coligny anxious to take advantage of the difficulties of Philip II, and to unite Catholics and Protestants in a national war against Spain.
G. Rochelle, Ntmes, Montauban. The religious policy was incomplete; the local political liberty was excessive. But the Protestants remembered the Massacre of St. Bartholomew and the Guises. The Edict meant: (a) "Ali epoch in the progress of toleration, that is, in the history of liberty, which is the marrow of all modern History" (Acton). " In the end, however, Calvinism in France was almost destroyed. (a) Their political power was broken by Richelieu, and they remained only a tolerated sect (1629).
A note-book of European history, 1400-1920 by Samuel Hugh McGrady